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A racing modified Ford Anglia from New Zealand
The Ford Anglia 105E was launched in 1959 as a 2-door 4-seater, small family saloon. It featured a new overhead valve four cylinder over-square engine which was very eager and free revving. The Anglia was available in either standard or Deluxe form with the latter featuring a full width front grill and better interior trim. The most striking feature of the new Anglia was the reverse rake rear windscreen which was incorporated into the design to improve headroom for rear passengers and aid visibility in wet weather. An estate version of the Anglia joined the range in 1961 and this was also available in standard or Deluxe specification. In 1962 the Anglia Super was launched with a 1198cc engine, larger drum brakes and an all synchromesh gearbox. The Anglia proved to be very successful both in motor sport, and with the buying public. Just over one million Anglias were made before production ended in 1968 with the arrival of the new Escort.
Ford Consul 315
The Ford Consul Classic or ‘Consul 315′ (as the export version was known) was a mid-sized car built by Ford in the UK from 1961 to 1963. Available with two or four doors, in Standard or De Luxe versions, with floor or column gearshift. It is commonly referred to as the Ford 109E , though four such codes are possible as explained below. Obvious competitor models at the time included the Hillman Minx and Singer Gazelle from Rootes group.
The Classic (and related Consul Capri) had the Right Hand Drive and home market Ford code of 109E (but 110E if L.H.D.) for 1961–1962 models with 1340cc engines, or 116E (but 117E for L.H.D.) for 1962–1963 manufacture with 1500cc engines. Those codes also distinguish the gearboxes and steering components which are not greasable on later cars, so cutting first-user servicing costs. Despite all these codes the cars all looked the same throughout production 1961–1963, the visual distinctions being the number of doors, the trim & equipment level between Standard and De Luxe and their exciting choice of colours.
A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1961 had a top speed of 78.4 mph (126.2 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 22.5 seconds. A fuel consumption of 35.8 miles per imperial gallon (7.89 L/100 km; 29.8 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car was a 4-door deluxe version costing £801 including taxes, but the sticker price on a two door standard Classic with the same engine was just £745 including taxes.
The Corsair was one of the four model Consul range, and shared many of its mechanical components with the Cortina, Classic and Capri. The Corsair had unusual and quite bold styling for its day, with a sharp horizontal V-shaped crease at the very front of the car into which round headlights were inset. This gave the car an apparently aerodynamic shape. The jet-like styling extended to the rear where sharply pointed vertical light clusters hinted at fins. The overall styling was clearly inspired by the early 1960s Ford Thunderbird, though in transferring the look to a British family car, the overall effect is something of an acquired taste.
The car was initially offered with the larger 60 bhp (45 kW), single carburettor, 1.5 L Kent Engine that was also used in the smaller Ford Cortina, in standard and GT form. In 1964 twins Tony and Michael Brookes’ team in a Kent engined (straight four) Corsair GT set 13 World Speed records at Monza in Italy averaging over 100 mph (160 km/h) for 15,000 miles (24,000 km) in the under 1500 cc class. The range was revised in 1965, adopting new V4 engines that many say spoiled rather than enhanced the car, as it had an out of balance couple, making it rough at idle and coarse on the road. This was available in 1663 cc form at first, but later in 1966, a larger 2.0 litre L version was offered alongside. One marketing tag line for the V4 models was “The Car That Is Seen But Not Heard”, which was a real stretch of the ad man’s puff, given the inherent characteristics of the engine. The other tag was “I’ve got a V in my bonnet”.
The Corsair’s performance was underwhelming, with a top speed in its 2.0 L V4 version of about 95 mph (153 km/h), not much faster than the original 1500GT version of 1964. While enthusiasts sought increased performance, a popular story circulated that if the car were driven at speeds over 80 mph (129 km/h), its wedge-shaped nose would generate sufficient lift to make the vehicle dangerously unstable. It is more than likely this story is an urban myth. Indeed, the myth was seemingly laid to rest when Corsair set World records at Monza (see above), running at 100 mph (160 km/h) for hour upon hour without the slightest apparent effect.
Ford Cortina Mk 1
The famous Ford Cortina car was to become one of fords best ever selling models. Introduced in September 1962 as the Consul Cortina, It was available as a two-door four/five seater saloon in either standard or deluxe forms. This family car was powered by an 1198cc four-cylinder engine that was derived from the Anglia 105E unit, and also like the Anglia the Cortina featured McPherson strut suspension at the front. A four-door model joined the range a month later in October 1962. A 1498cc version was to arrive in 1963, and later that year an estate version was launched along with a GT version of the Saloon and the famous Lotus Cortina was also launched. The model range was revised in 1964 and minor trim and interior changes were made and mechanical improvements included the fitting of front disc brakes. It was at this point that the Consul part of the name was dropped, with the car now showing only Cortina badges front and rear. More than one million Mk 1 Cortina’s were produced before the Mk II Cortina replaced the Mk1 in 1966.
Lotus Cortina Mk1
The history of the Lotus Cortina begins around 1961, when the best of Ford and Lotus got together. Colin Chapman had been looking to build his own engines for Lotus for quite some time (mainly because the Coventry Climax unit was so expensive). Colin Chapman’s chance came when he commissioned Harry Mundy (close friend, designer of the Coventry Climax engine and technical editor for The Autocar) to design a twin-cam version of the Ford Kent engine. Most of the development of the engine was done on the 997 cc and 1,340 cc bottom end, but in 1962 Ford released the 116E five bearing 1,499 cc engine and work centered on this. Keith Duckworth, from Cosworth, played an important part in tuning of the engine. The engine’s first appearance was in 1962 at the Nurburgring in a Lotus 23 driven by Jim Clark. Almost as soon as the engine was used in production cars (Lotus Elan) it was recalled and replaced with a larger capacity unit (82.55 mm bore to give 1,558 cc). This was done to get the car closer to the 1.6 litre capacity class in motorsport.
Ford Cortina Mk II
The Mk II Cortina was introduced in September 1966 to replace the already successful Mk 1. As with the Mk 1 it was available in either two or four door form, and was offered with either column or floor change manual transmission, or automatic (the column change cars came with a bench front seat). All models were available with either 1300 or 1500 engines – the 1500 engine was straight out of the Mk 1 and the 1300 was a stroked version of the Mk 1 1198cc unit. A GT version of the saloon was also offered which benefitted from more power and comprehensive instrumentation. An estate joined the range in early 1967 and this could actually be purchased in GT specification to special order. In 1967, just under a year of the Mk II being launched, both the 1300 & 1500 engines were replaced by the now famous crossflow engines in 1300 & 1600 form. The Cortina was now the best selling car in Britain. In September 1967 the highly desirable 1600 E (Executive) arrived – a sporting model with a high degree of luxury. It was based on 1600 GT running gear and was fitted with many luxury extras including walnut veneer door cappings & dashboard and the comprehensive instrumentation of the GT. Minor changes were made throughout the life of the Mk II which finally ended its production in 1970 after more than one million cars were sold. As with the Mk 1 Cortina a Lotus version was made.
Cortina Lotus Mk2
Ford wanted to change a few things for the Mk2, the Mk1 had done all and more than they could expect in competition, but the public linked its competition wins with Lotus and its bad points with Ford. Ford still wanted to build a mk2 Lotus and compete with it, but Lotus were moving from Cheshunt to Hethel so it was a bad time for them to build another model. Ford were also concerned with the unreliability of the Lotus built cars. So a decision was made at Ford that to continue with its competition drive and make the car more cost effective they would make the car at Dagenham themselves, alongside the other Cortinas. So the Mk2 had to be much easier to build than the Mk1 so it could be done alongside Mk2 GT production, just with a different engine and suspension. The Mk2 took a while to appear, 1st appearing in 1967. The main difference being the choice of colours and the lack of a stripe, although most had them fitted at Ford dealers at extra cost. The only cosmetic changes made was a black front grille, 5.5J x 13 steel wheels and lotus badges on rear wings and by the rear number plate. The badge on the front grille was an option at first. Unlike the Mk1 the Mk2 was made in left hand drive from the start of production. The Mk2 Lotus Cortinas also gained an improved and more powerful (109 bhp (81 kW; 111 PS)) engine, which used to be supplied as the special equipment engine optional on Lotus Elan and the Lotus Cortina Mk1. The gearbox ratios remained 2000E ones but the car now used the Mk2 GT remote-control gearchange. The car also had a different final drive of 3.77:1 rather than 3.9:1. The Mk2 was a wider car than the Mk1 so although they look the same the steel wheels had a different offset so as not to upset the tracking, radial tyres were now standard. Another attraction was the larger fuel tank used in the Mk2. The spare wheel could now be mounted in its wheel well, but the battery remained in the boot to aid weight distribution.
Ford Escort Mk 1 – 1968-1975
The new car’s design and Ford have contributed to Anglia Cortina success in motor sport side, for example, so that there would be the disc brakes, and sportier alternative to the engine as soon as the car came to market. Choose between the engine was from the beginning of 1098 and 1297 cc engines, in addition to the standard 1297 cubic centimeter engine to the factory-tuned GT-model. The GT model also, through the installation of a modified sportier transmission.
Powered by the body style used in the ‘Escort. Kent engine that had already been presented to Ford Cortina little earlier. The engine is a cover, to the current flowing through, which meant that the exhaust and intake ducts are in different parts of the cylinder cover. Notwithstanding the previous Kent-engine versions of the Escort engines would be 5 crankshaft runkolaakeripukkia, which would make the engine more sustainable. Kent-engine camshaft crankshaft is positioned next to the cylinder area. First Escort Kent-capacity engines were already mentioned 1098 and 1297 cc.
Escort Twin Cam (1968- 1971)
Twin-Cam technology was largely based on the MK2 Lotus Cortina. The cars were basically the same engine, clutch, gearbox and gear change mechanism, rear axle and the rear transmission. The twin cams had a hydraulic clutch, disc brakes on the front. The twin-Cam Escort battery was placed in the rear luggage compartment. The twin-Cam Escort was rear-axle supported by two longitudinal support along the basket. Twin-Cam engine was based on the Ford Cortina used in the 1498 cubic centimeter engine, which was not a Kent-engine, like breathing through a Cross-Flow model. Power cylinder on the cover for the two cam-shaft were led to chain-driven.
Escort Mk11 – 1975-1980
The squarer-styled Mark II version appeared in January 1975. The first production models had rolled off the production lines on 2 December 1974.
Unlike the first Escort (which was solely a British effort), the second generation was developed along with Ford of Germany. Codenamed “Brenda” during its development, it used the same mechanicals as the Mark I. The 950 cc engine was still offered in Italy but in larger markets elsewhere in Europe it was unavailable. The estate and van versions used the same panelwork as the Mark I, but with the Mark II front end and interior. The car used a revised underbody, which had in fact been introduced as a running change during the last six months of the life of the Mark I.
This car made a point, with just four body styles, of competing in many different market niches where rival manufacturers had either multiple model ranges or simply none at all. “L” and “GL” models (2-door, 4-door, estate) were in the mainstream private sector, the “Sport”, “RSMexico”, and “RS2000″ in the performance market, the “Ghia” (2-door, 4-door) for an untapped small car luxury market, and “base / Popular” models for the bottom end. Panel-van versions catered to the commercial sector.
As with its predecessor, the Mark II had a successful rallying career. All models of the Mark I were carried over to the Mark II, though the Mexico gained the RS badge and had its engine changed to a 1.6 L OHC Pinto instead of the OHV, it had a short production span as customers either bought the much cheaper “sport” or the much more exotic “RS 2000″ (a shame, as the RSMexico was basically an RS2000 without the ‘droopsnoot’). A “Sport” model was also produced using the 1.6 L Kent. Also a new and potent model was released, the RS1800, which had an 1800 cc version of the BDA engine. It was essentially a special created for rallying, and surviving road versions are very rare and collectible today. There has been a long standing debate regarding how the RS1800 was homologated for international motorsport, as Ford are rumoured to have built only fifty or so road cars out of the four hundred required for homologation.
The works rally cars were highly specialised machines. Bodyshells were heavily strengthened. They were characterised by the wide wheelarch extensions (pictured right), and often by the fitment of four large spotlights for night stages. The BDA engine was bored to 2.0 L and gave up to 270 bhp by 1979. It was complemented by a strengthened transmission, five-speed straight-cut ZF gearbox, five-linked suspension and a host of more minor modifications. In this form, the Escort was perhaps not the most sophisticated of the rear-drive saloon cars that dominated rallying in the late 1970s, but it was reliable and powerful, and good enough to win in the hands of some of the best drivers of its day.
Ford Capri Mk 1
Ford Capri Mk 1 (1969-1974)
Although a fastback coupé, Ford wanted the Capri Mark 1 to be affordable for a broad spectrum of potential buyers. To help achieve that, it was available with a variety of engines. The British and German factories produced different line-ups. The continental model used the Ford Taunus V4 engine in 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 L engine displacement, while the British versions were powered by the Ford Kent straight-4 in 1.3 and 1.6 L form. The Ford Essex V4 engine 2.0 L (British built) & Cologne V6 2.0 L (German built) served as initial range-toppers. At the end of the year, new sports versions were added: the 2300 GT in Germany, using a double-barrel carburettor with 125 PS (92 kW), and in September 1969 the 3000 GT in the UK, with the Essex V6, capable of 138 hp (103 kW).
Ford Capri Mk 2 (1974-1977)
In February 1974, the Capri Mk2 was introduced. After 1.2 million cars sold, and with the 1973 oil crisis, Ford chose to make the new car more suited to everyday driving with a shorter bonnet, larger cabin and the adoption of a hatchback rear door. By the standards of the day, the Mk2 was a very well evolved vehicle with very few reliability issues.
For Germany the Capri now offered 1.3 (55 PS (40 kW)) and 1.6 litre (72 PS (53 kW)) or (88 PS (65 kW)) in line four cylinder engines, complemented by 2.3 (108 PS (79 kW)) and the UK sourced 3.0 litre V6s.
Although it was mechanically similar to the Mk1, the Capri 2 had a revised larger body and a more modern dashboard including a smaller steering wheel. The 2.0 L version of the Pinto engine was introduced in the European model and was placed below the 3.0L V6. The Capri still maintained the large square headlights, which became the easiest way to distinguish between a Mk2 and a Mk3. Larger disc brakes and a standard alternator finished the list of modifications.
Ford Capri Mk 3 (1977-1986)
The Capri Mk3 was referred to internally as “Project Carla”, and although little more than a substantial update of the Mk2, it was often referred to as the Mk3. The first cars were available in March 1978, but failed to halt a terminal decline in sales. The concept of a heavily facelifted Capri 2 was shown at the 1976 Geneva show: a Capri 2 with a front very similar to the Escort RS2000 (with four headlamps and black slatted grille), and with a rear spoiler, essentially previewed the model some time before launch. The Mk3 featured improved aerodynamics, leading to improved performance and economy over the Mk2 and the trademark quad headlamps were introduced.
In 1981, the 3.0 V6 powerplant was dropped from the line-up, while a new sporty version debuted at the Geneva Motor Show, called the 2.8 Injection. The new model was the first regular model since the RS2600 to use fuel injection. Power rose to 160 PS (118 kW) giving a top speed of 210 km/h (130 mph), but the car still had a standard four-speed gearbox. The Capri 2.8 Injection breathed new life into the range and kept the car in production 2–3 years longer than Ford had planned. The four-speed gearbox was replaced with a five-speed unit early on – at the same time Ford swapped the dated looking chequered seats for more luxurious looking velour trim. A more substantial upgrade was introduced in 1984 with the Capri Injection Special. This development used half leather seating and included a limited slip differential. Externally the car could be easily distinguished by seven spoke RS wheels (without the customary “RS” logo since this was not an RS vehicle) and color coded grille and headlamp surrounds. At the same time the 2.0 L Capri was rationalized to one model the 2.0 S, which simultaneously adopted a mildly modified suspension from the Capri Injection. The 1.6 model was also reduced to one model, the 1.6 LS.
Capri Mk 3 racing in the European Silhoette Series in the 1980′s